# Linde plc Ordinary Shares (LIN)

Linde plc is a multinational chemical company. It is the largest industrial gas company by market share and revenue. It serves customers in the healthcare, petroleum refining, manufacturing, food, beverage carbonation, fiber-optics, steel making, aerospace, chemicals, electronics and water treatment industries. The company's primary business is the manufacturing and distribution of atmospheric gases, including oxygen, nitrogen, argon, rare gases, and process gases, including carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, electronic gases, specialty gases, and acetylene.

## Stock Price Trends

Stock price trends estimated using linear regression.

#### Key facts

- The primary trend is increasing.
- The growth rate of the primary trend is 31.43% per annum.
- LIN price at the close of October 11, 2024 was $474.04 and was inside the primary price channel.
- The secondary trend is increasing.
- The growth rate of the secondary trend is 23.94% per annum.
- LIN price at the close of October 11, 2024 was inside the secondary price channel.

### Linear Regression Model

Model equation:

Y_{i} = α + β × X_{i} + ε_{i}

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{i}) = Exp(a + b × X_{i} + 2 × s)

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{i}) = Exp(a + b × X_{i} – 2 × s)

where:

i - observation number

Y_{i} - natural logarithm of LIN price

X_{i} - time index, 1 day interval

σ - standard deviation of ε_{i}

a - estimator of α

b - estimator of β

s - estimator of σ

Exp() - calculates the exponent of e

### Primary Trend

Start date: June 16, 2022

End date: May 1, 2024

a = 4.8731

b = 0.0007

s = 0.0417

Annual growth rate:

Exp(365 × b) – 1

= Exp(365 × 0.0007) – 1

= 31.43%

Price channel spread:

Exp(4 × s) – 1

= Exp(4 × 0.0417) – 1

= 18.17%

#### June 16, 2022 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{674})

= Exp(a + b × X_{674} + 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × 976 + 2 × s)

= Exp(4.8731 + 0.0007 × 976 + 2 × 0.0417)

= Exp(5.6872)

= $295.08

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{674})

= Exp(a + b × X_{674} – 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × 976 – 2 × s)

= Exp(4.8731 + 0.0007 × 976 – 2 × 0.0417)

= Exp(5.5203)

= $249.71

#### May 1, 2024 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{1,144})

= Exp(a + b × X_{1,144} + 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × 1,661 + 2 × s)

= Exp(4.8731 + 0.0007 × 1,661 + 2 × 0.0417)

= Exp(6.2001)

= $492.79

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{1,144})

= Exp(a + b × X_{1,144} – 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × 1,661 – 2 × s)

= Exp(4.8731 + 0.0007 × 1,661 – 2 × 0.0417)

= Exp(6.0331)

= $417.02

#### Description

- The primary trend is increasing.
- The growth rate of the primary trend is 31.43% per annum.
- LIN price at the close of October 11, 2024 was $474.04 and was inside the primary price channel.

### Secondary Trend

Start date: November 10, 2022

End date: October 11, 2024

a = 5.0978

b = 0.0006

s = 0.0331

Annual growth rate:

Exp(365 × b) – 1

= Exp(365 × 0.0006) – 1

= 23.94%

Price channel spread:

Exp(4 × s) – 1

= Exp(4 × 0.0331) – 1

= 14.16%

#### November 10, 2022 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{776})

= Exp(a + b × X_{776} + 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × 1,123 + 2 × s)

= Exp(5.0978 + 0.0006 × 1,123 + 2 × 0.0331)

= Exp(5.8244)

= $338.47

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{776})

= Exp(a + b × X_{776} – 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × 1,123 – 2 × s)

= Exp(5.0978 + 0.0006 × 1,123 – 2 × 0.0331)

= Exp(5.6920)

= $296.48

#### October 11, 2024 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{1,257})

= Exp(a + b × X_{1,257} + 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × 1,824 + 2 × s)

= Exp(5.0978 + 0.0006 × 1,824 + 2 × 0.0331)

= Exp(6.2367)

= $511.16

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{1,257})

= Exp(a + b × X_{1,257} – 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × 1,824 – 2 × s)

= Exp(5.0978 + 0.0006 × 1,824 – 2 × 0.0331)

= Exp(6.1042)

= $447.75

#### Description

- The secondary trend is increasing.
- The growth rate of the secondary trend is 23.94% per annum.
- LIN price at the close of October 11, 2024 was inside the secondary price channel.