# Linde plc Ordinary Shares (LIN)

Linde plc is a multinational chemical company. It is the largest industrial gas company by market share and revenue. It serves customers in the healthcare, petroleum refining, manufacturing, food, beverage carbonation, fiber-optics, steel making, aerospace, chemicals, electronics and water treatment industries. The company's primary business is the manufacturing and distribution of atmospheric gases, including oxygen, nitrogen, argon, rare gases, and process gases, including carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, electronic gases, specialty gases, and acetylene.

## Stock Price Trends

Stock price trends estimated using linear regression.

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#### Key facts

• The primary trend is increasing.
• The growth rate of the primary trend is 31.77% per annum.
• LIN price at the close of June 14, 2024 was \$436.95 and was inside the primary price channel.
• The secondary trend is decreasing.
• The decline rate of the secondary trend is 36.73% per annum.
• LIN price at the close of June 14, 2024 was higher than the top border of the secondary price channel by \$9.85 (2.31%). This indicates a possible reversal in the secondary trend direction.
• The direction of the secondary trend is opposite to the direction of the primary trend. This indicates a possible reversal in the direction of the primary trend.

### Linear Regression Model

Model equation:
Yi = α + β × Xi + εi

Top border of price channel:
Exp(Yi) = Exp(a + b × Xi + 2 × s)

Bottom border of price channel:
Exp(Yi) = Exp(a + b × Xi – 2 × s)

where:

i - observation number
Yi - natural logarithm of LIN price
Xi - time index, 1 day interval
σ - standard deviation of εi
a - estimator of α
b - estimator of β
s - estimator of σ
Exp() - calculates the exponent of e

### Primary Trend

Start date:
End date:

a =

b =

s =

Annual growth rate:

Exp(365 × b) – 1
= Exp(365 × ) – 1
=

Exp(4 × s) – 1
= Exp(4 × ) – 1
=

#### June 28, 2022 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X + 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × + 2 × s)
= Exp( + × + 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X – 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × – 2 × s)
= Exp( + × – 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

#### May 1, 2024 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X + 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × + 2 × s)
= Exp( + × + 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X – 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × – 2 × s)
= Exp( + × – 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

#### Description

• The primary trend is increasing.
• The growth rate of the primary trend is 31.77% per annum.
• LIN price at the close of June 14, 2024 was \$436.95 and was inside the primary price channel.

### Secondary Trend

Start date:
End date:

a =

b =

s =

Annual growth rate:

Exp(365 × b) – 1
= Exp(365 × ) – 1
=

Exp(4 × s) – 1
= Exp(4 × ) – 1
=

#### March 5, 2024 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X + 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × + 2 × s)
= Exp( + × + 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X – 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × – 2 × s)
= Exp( + × – 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

#### May 30, 2024 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X + 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × + 2 × s)
= Exp( + × + 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X – 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × – 2 × s)
= Exp( + × – 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

#### Description

• The secondary trend is decreasing.
• The decline rate of the secondary trend is 36.73% per annum.
• LIN price at the close of June 14, 2024 was higher than the top border of the secondary price channel by \$9.85 (2.31%). This indicates a possible reversal in the secondary trend direction.