# MSA Safety Incorporated (MSA)

established in 1914, msa is the world's leading manufacturer of safety products designed to protect people throughout the world. many msa products, while simple to use and maintain, are sophisticated in design in that they typically integrate any combination of electronics, mechanical systems and advanced materials to protect users against hazardous or life-threatening situations. with headquarters located in cranberry twp, pennsylvania, msa employs approximately 5,000 associates and maintains operations that extend around the world. these resources include manufacturing operations on five continents, major r&d centers in the us, germany and china, and more than 40 international locations that help protect lives in more than 140 countries. a publicly held company, msa's stock is traded over the nyse exchange under the symbol msa. the company has annual revenues of approximately \$1 billion and has achieved record growth in revenue in 8 of the past 10 years.

## Stock Price Trends

Stock price trends estimated using linear regression.

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#### Key facts

• The primary trend is increasing.
• The growth rate of the primary trend is 26.08% per annum.
• MSA price at the close of February 16, 2024 was \$178.45 and was inside the primary price channel.
• The secondary trend is decreasing.
• The decline rate of the secondary trend is 2.62% per annum.
• MSA price at the close of February 16, 2024 was inside the secondary price channel.
• The direction of the secondary trend is opposite to the direction of the primary trend. This indicates a possible reversal in the direction of the primary trend.

### Linear Regression Model

Model equation:
Yi = α + β × Xi + εi

Top border of price channel:
Exp(Yi) = Exp(a + b × Xi + 2 × s)

Bottom border of price channel:
Exp(Yi) = Exp(a + b × Xi – 2 × s)

where:

i - observation number
Yi - natural logarithm of MSA price
Xi - time index, 1 day interval
σ - standard deviation of εi
a - estimator of α
b - estimator of β
s - estimator of σ
Exp() - calculates the exponent of e

### Primary Trend

Start date:
End date:

a =

b =

s =

Annual growth rate:

Exp(365 × b) – 1
= Exp(365 × ) – 1
=

Exp(4 × s) – 1
= Exp(4 × ) – 1
=

#### April 26, 2022 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X + 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × + 2 × s)
= Exp( + × + 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X – 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × – 2 × s)
= Exp( + × – 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

#### February 16, 2024 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X + 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × + 2 × s)
= Exp( + × + 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X – 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × – 2 × s)
= Exp( + × – 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

#### Description

• The primary trend is increasing.
• The growth rate of the primary trend is 26.08% per annum.
• MSA price at the close of February 16, 2024 was \$178.45 and was inside the primary price channel.

### Secondary Trend

Start date:
End date:

a =

b =

s =

Annual growth rate:

Exp(365 × b) – 1
= Exp(365 × ) – 1
=

Exp(4 × s) – 1
= Exp(4 × ) – 1
=

#### June 16, 2023 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X + 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × + 2 × s)
= Exp( + × + 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X – 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × – 2 × s)
= Exp( + × – 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

#### February 16, 2024 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X + 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × + 2 × s)
= Exp( + × + 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y)
= Exp(a + b × X – 2 × s)
= Exp(a + b × – 2 × s)
= Exp( + × – 2 × )
= Exp()
= \$

#### Description

• The secondary trend is decreasing.
• The decline rate of the secondary trend is 2.62% per annum.
• MSA price at the close of February 16, 2024 was inside the secondary price channel.