# PDF Solutions, Inc. (PDFS)

pdf solutions, inc. (nasdaq: pdfs) is the leading provider of yield improvement technologies and services for the ic manufacturing process life cycle. pdf solutions offers solutions that are designed to enable clients to lower costs of ic design and manufacture, enhance time to market, and improve profitability by addressing design and manufacturing interactions from product design to initial process ramps to mature manufacturing operations. pdf solutions' characterization vehicle® (cv®) test chips provide the core modeling capabilities, and are used by more leading manufacturers than any other test chips in the industry. pdf solutions' industry leading yield management system software, datapower®, and fault detection and classification software, mæstria®, enhance yield improvement and production control activities at leading fabs around the world. headquartered in san jose, calif., pdf solutions operates worldwide with additional offices in china, europe, japan, korea, singapore and

## Stock Price Trends

Stock price trends estimated using linear regression.

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#### Key facts

- The primary trend is decreasing.
- The decline rate of the primary trend is 34.33% per annum.
- PDFS price at the close of March 1, 2024 was $34.23 and was inside the primary price channel.
- The secondary trend is increasing.
- The growth rate of the secondary trend is 68.28% per annum.
- PDFS price at the close of March 1, 2024 was inside the secondary price channel.
- The direction of the secondary trend is opposite to the direction of the primary trend. This indicates a possible reversal in the direction of the primary trend.

### Linear Regression Model

Model equation:

Y_{i} = α + β × X_{i} + ε_{i}

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{i}) = Exp(a + b × X_{i} + 2 × s)

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{i}) = Exp(a + b × X_{i} – 2 × s)

where:

i - observation number

Y_{i} - natural logarithm of PDFS price

X_{i} - time index, 1 day interval

σ - standard deviation of ε_{i}

a - estimator of α

b - estimator of β

s - estimator of σ

Exp() - calculates the exponent of e

### Primary Trend

Start date:

End date:

a =

b =

s =

Annual growth rate:

Exp(365 × b) – 1

= Exp(365 × ) – 1

=

Price channel spread:

Exp(4 × s) – 1

= Exp(4 × ) – 1

=

#### March 3, 2023 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{})

= Exp(a + b × X_{} + 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × + 2 × s)

= Exp( + × + 2 × )

= Exp()

= $

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{})

= Exp(a + b × X_{} – 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × – 2 × s)

= Exp( + × – 2 × )

= Exp()

= $

#### February 8, 2024 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{})

= Exp(a + b × X_{} + 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × + 2 × s)

= Exp( + × + 2 × )

= Exp()

= $

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{})

= Exp(a + b × X_{} – 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × – 2 × s)

= Exp( + × – 2 × )

= Exp()

= $

#### Description

- The primary trend is decreasing.
- The decline rate of the primary trend is 34.33% per annum.
- PDFS price at the close of March 1, 2024 was $34.23 and was inside the primary price channel.

### Secondary Trend

Start date:

End date:

a =

b =

s =

Annual growth rate:

Exp(365 × b) – 1

= Exp(365 × ) – 1

=

Price channel spread:

Exp(4 × s) – 1

= Exp(4 × ) – 1

=

#### October 19, 2023 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{})

= Exp(a + b × X_{} + 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × + 2 × s)

= Exp( + × + 2 × )

= Exp()

= $

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{})

= Exp(a + b × X_{} – 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × – 2 × s)

= Exp( + × – 2 × )

= Exp()

= $

#### March 1, 2024 calculations

Top border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{})

= Exp(a + b × X_{} + 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × + 2 × s)

= Exp( + × + 2 × )

= Exp()

= $

Bottom border of price channel:

Exp(Y_{})

= Exp(a + b × X_{} – 2 × s)

= Exp(a + b × – 2 × s)

= Exp( + × – 2 × )

= Exp()

= $

#### Description

- The secondary trend is increasing.
- The growth rate of the secondary trend is 68.28% per annum.
- PDFS price at the close of March 1, 2024 was inside the secondary price channel.